computers and society

The decade of the 1980’s saw an explosion in computer technology and computer usage that deeply changed society.  Today computers are a part of everyday life, they are in their simplest form a digital watch or more complexly computers manage power grids, telephone networks, and the money of the world.  Henry Grunwald, former US ambassador to Austria best describes the computer’s functions, “It enables the mind to ask questions, find answers, stockpile knowledge, and devise plans to move mountains, if not worlds.”   Society has embraced the computer and accepted it for its many powers which can be used for business, education, research, and warfare.

The first mechanical calculator, a system of moving beads called the abacus, was invented in Babylonia around 500 BC. The abacus provided the fastest method of calculating until 1642, when the French scientist Pascal invented a calculator made of wheels and cogs.  The concept of the modern computer was first outlined in 1833 by the British mathematician Charles Babbage.  His design of an analytical engine contained all of the necessary components of a modern computer: input devices, a memory, a control unit, and output devices.  Most of the actions of the analytical engine were to be done through the use of punched cards.  Even though Babbage worked on the analytical engine for nearly 40 years, he never actually made a working machine.

In 1889 Herman Hollerith, an American inventor, patented a calculating machine that counted, collated, and sorted information stored on punched cards.  His machine was first used to help sort statistical information for the 1890 United States census.  In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company to produce similar machines. In 1924, the company changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. IBM made punch-card office machinery that dominated business until the late 1960s, when a new generation of computers made the punch card machines obsolete.

The first fully electronic computer used vacuum tubes, and was so secret that its existence was not revealed until decades after it was built.  Invented by the English mathematician Alan Turing and in 1943, the Colossus was the computer that British cryptographers used to break secret German military codes. The first modern general-purpose electronic computer was ENIAC or the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. Designed by two American engineers, John Mauchly and Presper Eckert, Jr., ENIAC was first used at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.

The invention of the transistor in 1948 brought about a revolution in computer development, vacuum tubes were replaced by small transistors that generated little heat and functioned perfectly as switches. Another big breakthrough in computer miniaturization came in 1958, when Jack Kilby designed the first integrated circuit. It was a wafer that included transistors, resistors, and capacitors the major components of electronic circuitry. Using less expensive silicon chips, engineers succeeded in putting more and more electronic components on each chip. Another revolution in microchip technology occurred in 1971 when the American engineer Marcian Hoff combined the basic elements of a computer on one tiny silicon chip, which he called a microprocessor. This microprocessor the Intel 4004 and the hundreds of variations that followed are the dedicated computers that operate thousands of modern products and form the heart of almost every general-purpose electronic computer.

By the mid-1970s, microchips and microprocessors had reduced the cost of the thousands of electronic components required in a computer. The first affordable desktop computer designed specifically for personal use was called the Altair 8800, first sold in 1974.  In 1977 Tandy Corporation became the first major electronics firm to produce a personal computer.  Soon afterward, a company named Apple Computer, founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs, began producing computers.  IBM introduced its Personal Computer, or PC, in 1981, and  as a result of competition from the makers of clones the price of personal computers fell drastically.  Just recently Apple Computer allowed its computers to be cloned by competitors.

During this long time of computer evolution, business has grasped at the computer, hoping to use it to increase productivity and minimize costs.  The computer has been put on assembly lines, controlling robots.  In offices computers have popped up everywhere, sending information and allowing numbers to easily be processed.  Two key words that apply today are downsizing and productivity.  Companies hope the increase worker productivity, meaning less working which then allows for downsizing.  The computer is supposed to be the magic wand that will make productivity shoot through the roof, but in some cases the computer was a waste of time and money.

Reliance Insurance is an example of computer technology falling flat on its face, wasting a great deal of money, while producing little or no results.  “Paper Free in 1983”  was the slogan Reliance used because the it had just spent millions of dollars to put computers everywhere and network them.  The employees had E-mail and other programs that where to eliminate paper and increase productivity.  The company chiefs sat back and waited for a boom in productivity that never arrived.

Other examples of the disappointments of computer are not hard to find.  Citicorp bank lost $200 million dollars developing a system in the 1980’s that gave up to the  minute updates on oil prices.  Knight-Ridder tried to develop a home shopping network on the television, and lost $50 million.  Wang laboratories almost went under when they put all of their resources toward developing imaging technology that no one wanted.  Ben & Jerry’s ice cream put in an E-mail system and out of 200 employees less than 30% used the system.  Everything attempted then is currently very common today; on-line services provide stock and commodities quotes, QVC is a home shopping channel on cable television, almost every picture in a magazine has been retouched with imaging technology, and even JRHS has an E-mail system that seems to be valuable.

Other corporations have seized computer technology and used it to reduce costs, but usually the human factor is lost. The McDonalds fast food chain is an example of a company that has embraced computers to help productivity and lower operating costs.  The McDonalds kitchen has become a computer timed machine, “You don’t have to know how to cook, you don’t have to know how to think.  There’s a procedure for everything and you just follow the procedure” .  The workers have in essence become robots controlled by the computer to achieve maximum productivity.  The computer knows the procedure and alerts the worker of events in the procedure and all the worker must do is execute what the beeper of buzzer means.  With such little knowledge of the making of the food, workers have become disposable, “It takes a special kind of person to be able to move before he can think.  We find people like that and use them until they quit.” .

McDonalds managers work even more closely with the computers that control them.  The computer generates a graph of expected business and tells the manager how many people to schedule and when, all the manager does is fill in the blanks with names.  McDonalds computers also keep close track of sales and expenditures, “The central office can check . . . how many Egg McMuffins were sold on Friday from 9 to 9:30 two weeks ago or two years ago, either in an entire store or at any particular register.”  .  The main  things computers do in a manual job is to speed things up, “Thinking generally slows this operation down.” , and for this reason computers have made manual jobs ones of extreme monotony and no creativity.

White collar jobs have remained virtually the same, computers have just helped to enhance creativity and attempted to raise productivity.  E-mail, word processors, spreadsheets, and personal organization programs are widely used by white collar workers.  These programs help to make impressive presentations, communicate, and keep track of everything  so the worker can get more done, and therefore less workers are needed, dropping costs.  This has not happened, over the last 30 years white collar worker productivity has remained the same, while blue collar productivity has almost quadrupled.  This is due mainly to the fact that white collar workers are required to think and adapt to situations quickly, which computers at the moment are unable to due, they only follow code to give a planned response.  The blue collar job requires less knowledge and skill, and so is easily replaceable by a computer.

Computers though have not been a failure in business, they allow information to be shared very quickly.  The home office is a product of computers, people can work from home instead of going into an office.  This has not become very popular due to the lack of touch between people, the loss of contact.  It is the human factor that helps to make business run, the random thought that saves the day, something a computer is incapable of doing.  Computers may help quicken business, but they will never replace people, only reduce their knowledge or creativity by automating the process.

Another form of computers is attempting to totally eliminate people from the picture.  Expert systems are large mainframe computers that have the knowledge of an expert individual loaded into it, and makes decisions that are very complex.  An expert in field is chosen and interviewed for sometimes over a year about their job and how they make decisions.  All of this knowledge is refined and put into a computer.  Another person then enters some statistics into the finished machine and magically a large printout will come out of the machine in minutes with the answers.  Expert systems are used mainly in large investing corporations, but some have been developed to help diagnose diseases.  The hope is one day a patient will lie down and a couple of sensors and probes will go over the body and then a computer printout will have the name of your illness and the drug to cure it.  Expert systems have been used very little mainly due to their high price and because of the lack of trust in them.

Computers have also reached into other places besides business, schools.  Children sit in front of computers and are drilled or taught about certain subjects selected by the teacher.  This method of teaching has come under fire, some people believe the computer should be a tool not a teacher, while others believe why learn from a normal teacher when a computerized version of the best can teach.  The technology of today could allow for a teacher in another country to teach a class through video confrencing.  The attempts to spread computer technology into the class room have produced results and taught lessons as to how computers should be applied.

The Belridge school district in McKittrick California was one of the most technological school districts in America.  Every student had two computers, one at school and one at home, which contained many brand new teaching programs.  The high school had a low powered television station that broadcasted every day.  The classes were small and parent involvement was high.  Even with all of these wonderful things one-third of the first grade class was below the national average in standardized tests after the first year.  Parents were enraged that after all of  the money spent nothing had happened, that the technology hadn’t made the children become smarter, and so all of the computers were gone the next year and traditional teaching was put back in place.

Belridge is an extreme example of people expecting the computers to do magic and make the children learn faster and better, much like companies hoped to raise productivity.  The children were left to learn from the computer, which they did, but nothing changed things actually got worse.  One parent realized, “. . . good teachers are the heart and soul of teaching.” , because computers can only present facts and explain them to a certain extent, where as a good teacher can explain to the student in many ways.

The US has about 2.7 million computers for 100,000 schools, a ratio of about 1 computer for every 16 students.  Experts say that, “Computers work best when students are left with a goal to achieve. . .” , and students are allowed to achieve this goal with proper direction from a teacher.  After many attempts in the 1980’s to put computers into the classroom a Presidential Plan was drawn up:

1.  Give computers to teachers before students.

2.  Move them out of the labs and into classrooms.

3.  One workstation at least for every two or three students.

4.  Still use flashcards for practice.

5.  Give teachers time to restructure around computers.

6.  Expect to wait 5 to 6 years for change.

This plan was to help guide the use of computers into the classroom, and maximize their ability as learning tool.  The computer will enhance the future classroom, but it cannot be expected to produce results quickly.  One thing the use of computers in the classroom will help with is the fear of computers and their ability to confuse people.  Early exposure to computers will help increase computer use in society years from now.

The biggest network of connected computers is broadly referred to as the internet, information superhighway or electronic highway.  The internet was started by the Pentagon as a way for the military to exchange information through computers using modems.  Over the years the internet has evolved into a public resource containing limitless amounts of information.  The main parts of the internet are FTP (file transfer protocol), gopher, telnet, IRC (internet relay chat), and the world wide web.  FTP is used to download large files from one computer to another quickly.  Gopher is much like the world wide web, but without the graphical interface.  Telnet is a remote computer login, this is where most of the hacking occurs.  The IRC is just chat boards where people meet and type in there discussions, but IRC is becoming more involved with pictures of the people and 3-D landscapes.  Besides IRC, these internet applications are becoming obsolete due to the world wide web.

The most popular of the internet applications is the world wide web or WWW.  It is a very graphical interface which can be easily designed and is easy to navigate.  The WWW contains information on everything and anything possibly imaginable.  Movies, sound bytes, pictures, and other media is easily found on the WWW.  It has also turned into a business venture, most large businesses have a “page” on the WWW.  A “page” is a section of the WWW that has its own particular address, usually a large business will have a server with many “pages” on it.  A sample internet address would be “”, the http stands for hypertext transfer protocol, or how the information will be transferred.  “” is the serve name, it is usually a mainframe computer with a T-1 up to T-3 fiber optic telephone line.  The server is expensive not because of the computer but because of the telephone line, a T-1 line which transfers up to 150 megabytes of information per second costs over $1000 a month, while a T-3 line transferring 450 megabytes of information can cost over $10,000 a month.  The “index.html” is the name of the page on the server, of which the server could have hundreds.

The ability for all of this information has made for a virtual society.  Virtual malls, virtual gambling, virtual identities, and even virtual sex have sprung up all over the internet wanting your credit card number or your First Virtual account number.  First Virtual is a banking system which allows so much money to be deposited at a local bank to be spent on the internet.  Much of the internet has become a large mail order catalog.  With all of these numbers and accounts, questions come up about the security of a persons money and private life, which aren’t easily answered.

Being safe is a new craze today, protection from hackers and other people who will steal personal secrets and then rob someone blind, or protection from pornography or white supremacists or millions of other things on the internet.  The recent communications bill that passed is supposed to ban pornography on the internet, but the effects aren’t apparent.  There are still many US “pages” with pornography that have consent pages warning the user of the pornography ahead.  Even if the US citizens stopped posting pornography, other nations still can and the newsgroups are also international.  Programs such as Surf Watch and Internet Nanny have become popular, blocking out pornographic sites.  The main problem or beauty of the internet is the lack of a controlling party, “It has no officers, it has no policy making board or other entity, it has no rules or regulations and is not selective in terms of providing services.” .  This is a society run by the masses that amounts to pure anarchy, nothing can be controlled or stopped.  The internet is so vast many things could be hidden and known to only a few, for a long time if not forever.  The real problem with controlling the interenet is self control and responsibility, don’t go and don’t see what you don’t want to, and if that amounts to a boring time, then don’t surf the net.

When speaking of computers and the internet one person cannot go unmentioned, Bill Gates, the president of Microsoft.  Microsoft has a basic monopoly on the computer world, they write the operating system and then the applications to run of the system, and when everyone catches up, they change the version.  Bill Gates started the company in the early 1980’s with DOS, or Disk Operating System, which just recently was made obsolete by Windows 95.  Bill Gates has now just ventured into the internet and is now tangling with Netscape, the company with the Internet monopoly.  Netscape gives away its software for free to people who want the basic version, but a version with all of the bells and whistles can be purchased.  Microsoft is hard pressed to win the internet battle, but will take a sizable chunk of Netscape business.  Bill Gates will likely keep running the software industry, with his recent purchase of Lotus, a popular spreadsheet, he further cornered the market.

Computers are one of the most important items society posses today.  The computer will be deeply imbedded in peoples lives even more when the technology progresses more and more.  Businesses will become heavily dependent as video confrencing and working from home become increasingly more feasible, so businesses will break down from large buildings into teams that communicate electronically.  Schools may be taught by the best teachers possible and software may replace teachers, but that is highly unlikely.  The internet will reach into lives, offering an escape from reality and an information source that is extremely vast.  Hopefully  society will further embrace the computer as a tool, a tool that must be tended to and assisted, not left to do its work alone.  Even so computers will always be present, because the dreams of today are made with computers, planned on computers, and then assembled by computers, the only thing the computer can’t do is dream, at least right now.

Five Benefits of Social Media

More individuals and small businesses are posing the question ‘what the heck do I do with all this social media stuff?’   And while most of the online marketing gurus support it, many people are still wondering exactly how to benefit from the new networking possibilities.  Do not be overwhelmed by the follow information and remember that the vast majority of people have yet to leverage the full capability of social media.

Social Media Influences SEO
Generating a large number of back-links to your primary website is one of the foremost goals for any successful search engine optimization strategy.  Social media provides for this when communities create links to good content.  Essentially, a passionate community is a linking community.  Relevant topics gain momentum as viral channels obtain information and distribute it to the rest of the online world.

Impacting Paid Advertising on Search Engines
Achieving high organic rankings is considered the lowest cost means of increasing visibility.  Paid advertising, or pay-per-click, is also a smart tactic which seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility through the use of paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion.  This strategy can generate significant results when launching a new campaign, targeting a specific audience, or just seeking to grab visibility in front of competitor customers.

Social Media Features High Quality Sites That Engage and Persuade
Remember that content is still paramount, and has the ability to engage casual onlookers to your point of view.  Sites such as Xanga, Friendster, Bebo, Flickr and imeem are just a few that provide a well-formatted presentation to your following.   This effect only serves to enhance the predominant message or image conveyed.

Tracking and Measurability
Measuring your online success is essential for reinvesting your time , money and resources.  Fortunately, web analytics programs allow users to pinpoint the specific links that send maximum traffic to your site.  Targeting those links is key when it comes time to add additional content to your marketing campaign.

Improving Site Conversion Rates
These rates consist of the website visitor percentage that turn into leads and then customers.  This concept is also known as your sales funnel in which there are multiple stages through which prospects progress over time.  Social media can improve this rates by allowing prospects to know, like and trust you more than in years past.

View Social media not as a destination but rather as a tool in an integrated marketing plan which connects like-minded people.  Your community will naturally grow given you provide quality content that engenders passion and loyalty to those relationships.

Cognos 8 Business Intelligence: an Overview

The world leader in corporate performance and business intelligence, Cognos, was proud to announce a new innovation—the Cognos 8 Business Intelligence. This is the ultimate when it comes to business intelligence functionality.
The Architecture of Cognos 8 Business Intelligence
Cognos 8 Business Intelligence boasts of a strong and a proven foundation. It stems from the powerful service-oriented architecture that came with Cognos ReportNet in the year 2003. Generating almost $250 million in license revenue, ReportNet is considered the fastest-selling product in the entire history of Cognos.
In a single architecture, Cognos 8 Business Intelligence offers your business the complete package of business intelligence features in one single product. Cognos 8 Business Intelligence is all users’ and administrators’ dream of a simple zero footprint interface that is easy to use, deploy, and integrate. A better and more organized performance management system is assured with Cognos 8 Business Intelligence with its high-end technology foundation and an environment that enables high user adoption and drives for better decision making for the personnel involved.
Enhancements from Cognos 8 Business Intelligence
? Open Data Access Capacity. This feature of Cognos 8 Business Intelligence eliminated all barriers to accessing data. From reporting to analysis, event management to scorecarding, the complete range of business intelligence functionality can now be easily performed across the organization, which allows for a more coordinated decision-making process within the company.
? Single Query Engine and Metadata Layer. With this feature, Cognos 8 Business Intelligence offers a single place that can be trusted for storing important information and a consistent viewing of any updates that may have a relevant effect on the business.
? Comprehensive Reporting Abilities. With this enhancement, Cognos 8 Business Intelligence is now made more compatible for real-time dashboards, production style reports, and ad-hoc inquiries. More dynamic reports and a richer graphical formatting enables the user to access a higher level of information especially when it comes to creating reports and dashboards.
? Drag-and-drop Ease of Use. Neophytes and not-so-techy users will find it easier to perform complex applications with Cognos 8 Business Intelligence. This means all sorts of analysis can now be easily accomplished including the comparison of various levels of information, applying compound filters, and a whole lot more regardless of the size of the data sources.
Business Event Management with Cognos 8 Business Intelligence
Offering the only event management for business in the industry, Cognos 8 Business Intelligence automatically alerts users of performance events and allows them to monitor all data that is significant with these events all through the RSS channel that is basically based on the Web. Any changes to the status of a significant performance event will be known to all users in real time without the occurrences of SPAM, which is common in most of the alerting technologies that came before Cognos 8 Business Intelligence. With this business management system, your event is fully taken cared of in its entire lifestyle, including all the actions undertaken and modifications made, from start to the completion of the project.
Cognos 8 Business Intelligence definitely deserves getting the title of being the best business intelligence system that came into being. Making a big impact and influence in the business management process, it definitely will definitely be part of the industry for a long time. It’s ability to enable managers monitor performance events and track events from start to finish will enable every business to come up with accurate decisions that will greatly affect their organizations. Every problem and opportunity is addressed accordingly and surely everybody in the organization will feel that they are an important part of the everyday business—thanks to Cognos 8 Business Intelligence.
This article was built using the search engine optimization service provided by Web Efforts UK.

How to get free google adwords coupons

Welcome to my tutorial on adsense vouchers.

I have decided to write this guide to help all  poor webmasters (that cannot afford an expensive marketing campaign) promoting their website without spending a dime.

I will describe a simple method to promote your website on google adwords for free.

What is Google AdWords?

Google AdWords is a marketing invention created by the search engine to increase web site traffic for businesses.

The Internet advertising model used by google adwords is ppc also known as pay per click. Pay-Per-Click (PPC) advertising is a method of marketing where a business pays a certain amount of money each time someone clicks on a small ad on a search engine’s results page or homepage and is then taken to the advertiser’s website.

It allows advisers to put keywords into their ads to show up all over the World Wide Web when specific web sites and content are centered around those very specific advertising keywords.

The good news is that you can promote your website on adword for free. All you need is an adword coupon.

Godaddy is currently offering adword voucher to anybody, you can get up to $100 worth of Google® AdWords® credit when you purchase certain products. is the world’s largest domain name registrar, it provides world-class hosting every bit as good and often better than that which a hosting-only company might offer.

To receive your adwords voucher go here, and opt in for any hosting package.

We highly recommend to buy the virtual dedicated server plan since you will get $100 worth of Google® AdWords® credit, if you decide to buy a web hosting plan you will only get $75 credits.

To run your AdWords ads, you’ll need to create a google account, go here to create one.
If you already have an email address and password with Google services like AdSense, Google Mail, Orkut or iGoogle, you can use  your existing account for AdWords.

Once your AdWords account is created, follow these steps to create your first ad campaign:
1.    Sign in to your account at
2.    Click Create your first campaign.
3.    Follow the guided steps to create a campaign. If you have questions.

Once you have activated the credit you will need to suspend your ads if you do not wish to receive additional charges beyond the free credit amount.

The promotional credit is non-transferable and may not be sold or bartered.
We are aware that there are other hosting companies that offers adword voucher for their new customers, hostgator is one of them. We highly recommend godaddy because they have the lowest prices and best deals around. If you need an affordable, reliable place to host your site — with live, 24/7 support by expert staff who understand you – godaddy is the right company.

I really hope you enjoyed this tutorial, more guides are coming soon, stay tuned.

How to Relieve Constipation Through Natural Remedies?

Constipation is one of the most annoying conditions where the fecal matter traveling through your colon remains too long in your colon right before traveling out the rectum. It is a condition that tells you that either your colon is not working properly or that you have some underlying gastrointestinal disease.

Constipation is generally a result of not following a proper diet in your daily routine. Your diet lacks enough fluids and fiber contents that promote good movement of digested foods through the intestines and colon.

If you are looking for how to relieve constipation through natural remedies that you are certainly reading the right article. Just continue reading to find an easy solution to cure your problem.

Natural remedies to get constipation relief –

1. Relieving constipation using bael fruit – Bael fruit is one of the best natural laxatives. It helps clean and tone the intestines. Its regular use for 2-3 months throws out even the very old accumulated fecal matter.

2. Relieving constipation using guava – Guava is another important natural remedy for constipation. When eaten with seeds, it provides roughage to the diet and helps in the normal evacuation of the bowels. Take 1-2 guavas everyday for fast result.

3. Relieving constipation using figs – Both fresh and dry figs have natural laxative effect. Soak 4-5 dry figs overnight in a little water and eat in the morning. This is also very common natural remedy for getting relief from constipation.

4. Relieving constipation using spinach – Raw spinach contains the finest organic material for the cleansing, reconstruction, and regeneration of the intestinal tract. Prepare spinach juice by mixing 100 ml of spinach juice with an equal quantity of water. Take this juice twice daily to cure the most aggravated cases of constipation within a few days.

5. Relieving constipation using triphala – Triphala is a well known herbal remedy for constipation. It is made of natural herbs like haritaki, amalaki and bibhitaki. It helps in natural colon cleansing and relieving constipation.

This last option is certainly the best one to consider, before thinking of the other options. There are a few good herbal constipation remedy that users have had great success with.

Read more about Triphala and know how it can cure your constipation from the root. Also read home remedies for constipation at Natural cures website – a health guide to make you and your family fit and healthy.

Importance of Web Site Content Development

Have you heard about Content Is King? Content optimization is very important aspect in web site design development. Because the optimized content always drives your web site into top position in search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Live. Search engines regularly spider as much as new content of any websites in their database. If you do a search for any topic you will find the websites that come up in the top 10 all have a lot of content on their websites.

So content is still king if your goal is to build a robust and high quality web site. That does not mean that content is the only thing. It is content that leads to all those off-site factors being in your favor. There are 2 most important factors of content for your web site:

1. Keywords
Keyword research is the main core of your success. If you don’t find the right keywords you want to target then you will simply NOT make any money at all. It’s simple as that. The term that surfers type into the search box at Google or another search engine is called a ‘keyword’ or ‘keyword phrase’.

For example, if you want to find a web site that sells or has information about ‘web design service’ you would enter the keyword phrase ‘web design service’ in the search box at

A number of tools allow internet marketers to assess demand for a topic by finding out which keywords surfers search for and how often those keywords are searched. WordTracker makes their Keyword Selector Tool available both free and paid options to everyone at: Word Tracker.

2. Fresh Content
Search engines favor web sites with frequently changing and unique content. Posting regular content to your web site is crucial. It will keep the search engines spiders coming to crawl your posts and have existing readers coming back to read the new stuff. Point being – content, fresh content, is king. Google seems to avoid stale content. Give the Googlebot something new to read on each visit and my experience has shown that it will be back often. So your fresh content should be part of your web site that you write or hire to have written exclusively for you. No one else gets access to it because it is yours. I hope you are smart enough to look into the future and see the benefit of doing that.

In the eyes of Search Engine Optimization, fresh and unique content is of paramount importance. In order to show the latest information on your site to the visitors through search engines, your page must be updated regularly so that the spiders will visit and index more often.

Ultimately, your content is the one part of your web site that makes you money. The code, design, and even traffic, while important, are not what ultimately get visitors to take action.

How to Earn Significant Income With Adsense

Many people do not understand the power of making money with adsense. Selling products or services online can be very tough especially for the newbie with little capital and resources however with adsense you can earn money without the need for your own products or services. What you will need though is a high traffic website and learning how to create such a site is the primary challenge. While adsense is a great way to earn money online, you should always try to diversify your income sources and consider placing affiliate ads too so you have multiple streams of revenue.

Pick the right niches:

It is important to create sites in niches that have lots of advertiser competition. This will mean that the bidding is high and the payout per click can be much better than creating sites where there is not much competition. Use the google keyword tool to find profitable niches to operate in to maximize your chances of success. Look for high volume search terms with lots of advertiser competition which will help to increase your pay per click. Before you apply for the adsense program you will need to have a decent site.

Be creative and come up with original and unique content that people will want to read and find useful and will also want to return in the future. It is always a good idea to learn some programming languages and put up some original applications on your site, this will make your site stand out and you may even be able to charge people for using the applications if you are able to make it good enough.

Place ads in the proper locations:

You want to be placing ads in the parts of your pages that are visible to your visitors without making it appear like there are too many ads. Above the fold is always a good idea to place an ad unit ideally towards the center of the page as that is where most people tend to focus on a site. Also try to blend your ads in with the rest of the content on the site as this will help to improve click through rates. If you have an article on the page then consider wrapping content around an ad unit as this will help to improve click through rates also. It is also a good idea to place ads at the end of the page too as this will give your visitors a place to go once they are done checking the content on your page.

Learn basic seo:

Search engine optimization can help to generate free and targeted traffic to your sites and is worth learning how to do. There are two aspects to seo and they are on page optimization and off page optimization. Both are important but the off page is more critical. The first step is to focus on creating the best site you possibly can and add original and unique content that people will find useful to read. Never create spam sites or simply take content off other sites as this strategy will most likely fail and could get your site banned from the search engines as well as your adsense account banned too.

Use a good keyword tool like the Google keyword tool to research potentially profitable keywords to optimize your site for. Look for long tailed keywords that are three words or more as these can be easier to rank for than the shorter terms. Also the long tailed terms are more targeted so have a tendency to convert better if you are promoting affiliate products on your site. Place the main keyword in the title and description tags as well as in the main paragraph and a few times toward the end of the page. For off page optimization you want to use a technique like article marketing or reciprocal linking to build quality inbound links to your site.

Online Marketing for HVAC

The Internet is an advertiser’s dream. There are more ways to market your business online than you can count, many of them are highly effective. But if you are a business that is just starting out on the internet, it’s hard to know which marketing method is right for you. That is why many turn to online marketing professionals to help them establish an online presence. Today we are going to focus on a specific industry and see what professionals just starting out online can do to promote their services and reach customers. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC for short) is a growing and competitive industry. Since every new home and every new building needs indoor climate control provided by industry professionals, there is always work to be found. But, as we mentioned, this is highly competitive field and a new company that is just starting out desperately needs a competitive advantage that will allow them to locate customers as quickly as possible. One simple solution is online marketing for HVAC. But how do you market a new business online? And which marketing methods will be right for you? These are questions that are best left to the professionals, the online professionals. And that is why many new HVAC businesses are joining online membership sites that tell them exactly how to market their services online. These experienced professionals know the industry and they know the internet. They have helped thousands of new businesses find their bearing and their customers online. What kind of help do they provide? HVAC online marketing professionals will help you establish an online presence as quickly and effectively as possible. Below are just a few of the things they with help you with: Website Design This is your virtual business and it is used to promote your company and its services to potential customers. It should include clear and concise information about who you are and why they should hire you to work on their project. The site also needs to be easy to use and highly accessible. Email Marketing If you want to launch a successful HVAC marketing campaign, then you have to locate customers. One of the most effective ways of finding potential customers and keeping current customers is through the use of email. Email messages can be used to promote the company and let customers know about any upcoming sales. Search Engine Optimization Companies use Search Engine Optimization so that there website will be listed when people perform a basic web search. It is a technical skill that can be learned with the help of a trained professional. If you decide to join an online site to help you with your marketing for HVAC, you should also see to it that the site is highly interactive. There should be forums where you can speak directly to HVAC online professionals. You should also look for a site that has a video section where you can receive step-by-step instructions about common marketing methods. It is also a good idea to locate a site that charges you a monthly fee, so that you don’t get caught in an annual contract.

What Is The Stripe On the Credit Card?

What Is The Stripe On the Credit Card?

Each day we use our bank issued credit card. Swiping our cards on stores card readers to buy our purchases. Now, how it is that something so small can keep all your bank information. What allows the card reader to see that information? And what is that dark strip on the back of our cards.
The stripe on the back of a credit card is a magnetic stripe, or also called “MagStripe”. The magnetic strip is made up of tiny iron-based magnetic particles in a plastic-like film. Each particle is really a tiny magnet bar about 20-millionths of an inch long.

The magnetic stripe can have data written because the tiny magnet bar can be magnetized in either a north or South Pole direction. The magnetic strip very similar to a cassette tape.
A magnetic stripe card reader can then understand the information that has been written on the three-track stripe.
If the credit card isn’t being accepted, your problem is probably either:

  • A dirty or scratched MagStripe
  • An erased magnetic stripe
    • The most common causes for erased MagStripe are exposure to magnets, like the ones that hold notes &pictures on your refrigerator, or exposure to a store’s EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) tag demagnetizer.
  • Or you are just out of money.

These Three Tracks Stripes on the magnetic stripe each have tracks that are about 1/10th of an inch wide. The ISO/IEC standard 7811, which is used by some banks, specifies:

  • Track one – 210 bpi (bits per inch), and holds 79 6-bit plus parity bit read-only characters.
  • Track two – 75 bpi, and holds 40 4-bit plus parity bit characters.
  • Track three – 210 bpi, and holds 107 4-bit plus parity bit characters.

Credit Card typically uses only tracks-1 & 2. Track-3 is a read/write track (which includes your encrypted PIN, country codes, currency units and amount on your account); this is not standardized among all banks.
The information on track-1 is contained in two formats: A, which is reserved for proprietary use of the card issuer, and B, which includes the following:

  • Start sentinel – one character
  • Format code=”B” – one character (alpha only)
  • Primary account number – up to 19 characters
  • Separator – one character
  • Country code – three characters
  • Name – two to 26 characters
  • Separator – one character
  • Expiration date or separator – four characters or one character
  • Discretionary data – enough characters to fill out maximum record length (79 characters total)
  • End sentinel – one character
  • Longitudinal redundancy check (LRC) – one character LRC is a form of computed check character.

The format for track two, developed by the banking industry, is as follows:

  • Start sentinel – one character
  • Primary account number – up to 19 characters
  • Separator – one character
  • Country code – three characters
  • Expiration date or separator – four characters or one character
  • Discretionary data – enough characters to fill out maximum record length (40 characters total)
  • LRC – one character

There are three basic methods for determining whether your credit card will pay for what you’re charging:

  • Voice authentication – Small Merchants do using a touch-tone phone.
  • Electronic data capture – (EDC) MagStripe-card swipe terminals
  • Virtual terminals on the Internet

How all of this works:
After the credit card is swipes through a reader, the EDC software at the point-of-sale (POS) terminal dials a stored phone number (using a modem) to call an acquirer. An acquirer is an organization that collects credit card authentication requests from merchants and provides the merchants with a guarantee payment.
When the acquirer company gets the credit-card authentication request, it checks the transaction for validity and the record on the MagStripe for:

  • Merchant ID
  • Valid card number
  • Expiration date
  • Credit-card limit
  • Card usage

With Single dial-up transactions, they are processed at 1,200 to 2,400 bits per second (bps), while direct Internet attachment uses much higher speeds via this protocol. Using Internet protocol, the cardholder enters their personal identification number (PIN) using a pin pad.
The PIN is not on the card — it is encrypted in the database. Creation of your PIN can be interred in on the bank’s computers in an encrypted form.
Also, the communications between the ATM and the bank’s central computer are encrypted to prevent would-be thieves from tapping into the phone lines, recording the signals sent to the ATM to authorize the dispensing of cash and then feeding the same signals to the ATM to trick it into unauthorized dispensing of cash.
If all of this isn’t enough protection, there are now cards that utilize even more security measures than your conventional credit card: Smart Cards.

Benefits of Holding an Australian Permanent Residence – Cecille Gamas

Becoming an Australian Permanent Resident is one of the biggest dreams of most Australian Immigrants who are only staying temporarily in Australia. This is for the fact that there are certain privileges and rights that they could receive once they are granted to have an Australian Permanent Residence Visa. Through holding this visa, one of the main benefits that they will enjoy is having unrestricted rights to live and stay in Australia. This means that they are allowed to leave and re-enter Australia as long as the visa is still valid and effective despite of not having citizenship.

Furthermore, the length of stay in Australia is also indefinite unlike with other Australian Visas such as Tourist Visas and Working Holiday Visas which only give immigrants up to 1 year for their stay and need to leave Australia before that period ends. Unless there are some cases of criminal records or failure to comply with other immigration rules, the validity of permanent residence visa will usually last up to five years starting from the date it is granted. But even though this visa has reached its initial expiry, the holder can still have the privilege to remain in Australia indefinitely without breaking the immigration rules and regulations.

As part of Australian Government’s primary insurance package, Australian Permanent Residents are also entitled to receive free Medical Care and after fulfilling two years holding a permanent residence, they will soon enjoy the social security benefits. Aside from these benefits, they are also given with rights to sponsor their relatives. However they must meet the PR criteria and complete the needed requirements or support legal documents before they become eligible to sponsor their family. With regards to their employment career, they have also rights to secure any profession in any Australian employers or even entering government positions. However, employment in the Australian Public Service or Defense forces is only restricted to Australian Citizens.

Australian Permanent Residents are also eligible to becoming Australian Citizens since holding a Permanent Residence (PR) may lead them to full Australian citizenship. This is another great incentive for them after they have continuously lived in Australia for two years and have also complied with certain requirements issued to them. Once they are granted to become full citizens, they will enjoy great benefits including an access to free or subsidized education, legal as well as to health services. Full Citizens are also given the opportunity to vote in State and local government elections because some states allow them specifically those from Commonwealth of Nation. However, they do not have the right to vote in Federal Elections.

Cecille Gamas – National Visas